Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60 Extra Quality
Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60: A Comprehensive Guide to the History and Culture of the Chola Dynasty
If you are interested in learning about the Chola dynasty, one of the most powerful and influential empires in the history of South India, you have come to the right place. In this article, you will find out everything you need to know about Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60, a free and easy way to download and read a book on the Chola history and culture in Tamil.
Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60
What is Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60?
Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60 is a book written by M. Rasamanikanar, a renowned historian and scholar of Tamil literature. The book is a comprehensive account of the Chola dynasty, from its origins to its decline, covering various aspects such as politics, administration, society, religion, art, architecture, literature and trade. The book is based on extensive research and analysis of various sources, such as inscriptions, coins, temples, sculptures, paintings and literary works.
The book is available in PDF format for free download from the website FreeTamilEbooks.com, which is a platform for publishing and distributing Tamil ebooks under public domain or creative commons licenses. The book can be downloaded in different formats for different devices, such as epub for Android (FBreader), Apple and new Nook devices; mobi for new Kindle devices; A4 PDF for GNU/Linux and Windows computers; and 6 inch PDF for old Kindle and Nook devices. The book can also be read online or sent to Kindle directly from the website.
Why should you read Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60?
There are many reasons why you should read Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60 if you are interested in Tamil history and culture. Here are some of them:
The book is written in simple and clear Tamil language, making it easy to understand and enjoy.
The book is comprehensive and covers all the major aspects of the Chola dynasty, giving you a complete picture of their achievements and legacy.
The book is based on reliable and authentic sources, giving you accurate and factual information.
The book is free and easy to download and read, making it accessible and convenient for anyone.
The book is a valuable resource for students, teachers, researchers and anyone who wants to learn more about the Chola dynasty.
What will you learn from Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60?
By reading Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60, you will learn a lot of interesting and important things about the Chola dynasty. Here are some of them:
You will learn about the origin and evolution of the Chola dynasty, from its early rulers such as Karikala Chola to its later rulers such as Rajendra Chola I.
You will learn about the political and administrative system of the Chola dynasty, such as its division into provinces (mandalams), districts (valanadus) and villages (ur); its bureaucracy (sabha), army (senai) and navy (kappal); its taxation (vari) and revenue (kani); its law (dharma) and justice (nyaya); its diplomacy (sandhi) and war (yuddha).
You will learn about the society and culture of the Chola dynasty, such as its caste system (varna), gender roles (stree-purusha), marriage customs (vivaha), festivals (utsava), education (vidya), language (bhasha), literature (sahitya), religion (dharma), temples (devalaya), art (kala), architecture (vastu), sculpture (shilpa), painting (chitra) and trade (vanijya).
You will learn about the achievements and contributions of the Chola dynasty to Tamil history and culture, such as its expansion of territory across South India, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia; its patronage of literature, art and architecture; its promotion of Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Bhakti movement; its development of irrigation systems, maritime trade and urbanization; its influence on other cultures and civilizations.
What was the religion of the Chola dynasty?
The Chola dynasty was predominantly Hindu, though they were tolerant of other faiths such as Buddhism and Jainism. The Chola rulers followed different sects of Hinduism, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Bhakti movement. They also patronized various temples, festivals, and saints of different Hindu traditions.
Shaivism is the tradition of worshipping Shiva as the supreme deity. Based on the Chola inscriptions and their artistic legacy, the dynasty subscribed to Shaivism, and built many magnificent temples dedicated to Shiva. For example, the Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja I, is one of the largest and most splendid temples of India. The temple has a towering vimana (tower) that reaches 66 meters (216 feet) in height, and a huge linga (symbol of Shiva) that measures 3.7 meters (12 feet) in height. The temple is also adorned with exquisite sculptures, paintings, and inscriptions that depict various aspects of Shiva and his consort Parvati.
Vaishnavism is the tradition of worshipping Vishnu as the supreme deity. The Chola rulers also supported Vaishnavism, especially the southern branch known as Alvar Vaishnavism or Srivaishnavism. This branch was founded by the Alvars, 12 poet-saints who composed devotional hymns in praise of Vishnu and his avatars (incarnations). The Chola kings patronized the Alvars and their shrines, known as Divya Desams (holy abodes). For example, Rajaraja I donated land and gold to the Srirangam temple, one of the most sacred Divya Desams. The Chola kings also promoted the philosophy of Vishishtadvaita (qualified non-dualism), which was expounded by Ramanuja, a prominent Vaishnava theologian.
Bhakti movement is a socio-religious movement that emphasized personal devotion and love for God over ritualistic practices and caste distinctions. The Chola dynasty witnessed the rise and spread of the Bhakti movement in South India, especially among the Shaiva and Vaishnava traditions. The Chola kings encouraged the Bhakti saints and poets, who composed hymns and songs in Tamil language that expressed their intense devotion and emotional attachment to God. Some of the famous Bhakti saints and poets of this period are Appar, Sambandar, Sundarar, Manikkavacakar (Shaiva), Andal, Nammalvar, Tirumangai Alvar (Vaishnava), and Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Shakta).
What was the trade and commerce of the Chola dynasty?
The Chola dynasty was renowned for its trade and commerce, both within and outside India. The Chola rulers developed a strong maritime network that connected them with various regions and countries across the Indian Ocean and beyond. They also promoted agriculture, irrigation, and urbanization, which boosted their internal economy and supported their external trade.
The Chola dynasty had a powerful navy that enabled them to launch naval expeditions and establish control over the Bay of Bengal and the Sri Lankan island. They also extended their influence to Southeast Asia, where they founded colonies and vassal states in places like Indonesia and Malaysia. They even reached China, where they traded with the Song dynasty.
The Chola merchants played a major role in interregional and overseas trade, which led to their rapid growth and prosperity. They traded in various commodities, such as spices, textiles, pearls, gems, gold, silver, copper, iron, ivory, sandalwood, camphor, and rice. They also exchanged cultural and religious ideas with other civilizations, such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.
Agriculture and irrigation
The Chola dynasty was also known for its agricultural development and irrigation systems. The Chola rulers built dams, canals, tanks, wells, and reservoirs to harness the water resources of the Kaveri (Cauvery) River and its tributaries. They also reclaimed land from forests and swamps for cultivation. They encouraged farmers to grow various crops, such as rice, sugarcane, cotton, millets, pulses, fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
The Chola dynasty also witnessed the growth of urbanization and commerce in their territory. The Chola rulers built many cities and towns that served as centers of administration, trade, culture, and religion. Some of the famous cities of the Chola period are Uraiyur (now Tiruchchirappalli), Thanjavur (Tanjore), Gangaikondacholapuram (the new capital built by Rajendra I), Kanchipuram (Kanci), Madurai (the capital of the Pandyas), Kaveripattinam (Poompuhar), Nagapattinam (a port city), Korkai (a pearl fishing center), and Mahabalipuram (a coastal town with rock-cut temples).
What was the art and architecture of the Chola dynasty?
The Chola dynasty was renowned for its art and architecture, which reached its peak during the 10th to 13th centuries CE. The Chola rulers built magnificent stone temples with intricate carvings and exquisite bronze sculptures, in an almost exclusively Hindu cultural setting. The Chola art and architecture was influenced by the earlier Pallava and Amaravati styles, but also developed its own distinctive features and innovations.
The Chola stone temples are considered as masterpieces of Indian art and architecture. They are built in the Dravida style, which is characterized by a pyramidal tower (vimana) over the sanctum (garbhagriha), a pillared hall (mandapa) in front of the sanctum, and a gateway (gopura) at the entrance. The Chola temples are also decorated with elaborate sculptures, paintings, and inscriptions that depict various aspects of Hindu mythology, history, and culture.
Some of the most famous Chola temples are the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, completed in 1010 CE by Rajaraja I; the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholapuram, completed in 1035 CE by Rajendra I; and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram, completed in 1160 CE by Rajaraja II. These three temples are collectively known as the Great Living Chola Temples, and are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The Chola bronze sculptures are regarded as some of the finest examples of Indian metal art. The Chola artists excelled in bronze casting and produced realistic and graceful statues of Hindu gods and goddesses, saints and devotees, kings and queens. The Chola bronzes are made using the lost-wax technique, which involves creating a wax model, covering it with clay, heating it to melt the wax, and then pouring molten metal into the hollow mould.
The most iconic example of Chola bronze sculpture is the dancing figure of Shiva or Nataraja, which depicts the god as the cosmic dancer who creates and destroys the universe with his movements. The bronze statues of Nataraja are characterized by their dynamic poses, graceful curves, intricate details, and expressive faces. The Nataraja statue from Tanjavur is one of the largest bronzes ever made in India, measuring 1.2 meters (4 feet) in height.
In this article, we have seen how Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60 is a comprehensive and informative book on the history and culture of the Chola dynasty, one of the most powerful and influential empires in South India and beyond. We have also seen how the Chola dynasty achieved remarkable feats in various fields, such as politics, administration, military, trade, art, architecture, literature, and religion. The Chola dynasty left behind a rich legacy of monuments, sculptures, paintings, inscriptions, and literary works that reflect their glory and greatness. Cholar Varalaru In Tamil Pdf Free 60 is a must-read for anyone who wants to learn more about the Chola dynasty and its contributions to Tamil history and culture. d282676c82